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This study proposes PEGADyn – a hybrid version of PEGASIS and Dynamic State algorithm for a new energy-efficient routing protocol in ad hoc networks. PEGADyn creates a virtual grid classification of nodes based on current location, followed by a cluster formation of nodes in each virtual grid created. The use of cluster heads (CHs) and designated cluster heads (dCHs) -- selected based on energy levels -- limits communication overheads among nodes, reducing the energy expended and increasing the network lifetime.
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