Radio frequency spectrum is a scarce resource, hence its effective and efficient utilization for contemporary and future technologies is of paramount importance. This paper mainly focuses on analysing conventional models for spectrum management, such as command and control and market-based models, and their inefficacy to serve the upcoming technological demands globally. Generally outlined observations concerning spectrum mismanagement include lesser availability of unassigned spectrum and under-utilization of spectrum allocated to passive users. Due to the considerable urge for flexible spectrum assignment framework models and policies, new spectrum assignment approaches, such as Dynamic Spectrum Access, are investigated. Moreover, models such as Licensed Shared Access (LSA), which evolved from Europe, and Citizen Bands Radio Service (CBRS) from North America are also evaluated in this paper as potential choices for future spectrum management in Pakistan. In the aforesaid models, spectrum is shared among multiple users as per time, place and dimensions, keeping in view the security and priority of incumbent and licensed users. In addition, the efficiency of spectrum utilization and economic advantages of these models have also been analysed. Lastly, LSA and CBRS are studied comparatively, and spectrum management suggestions are made for effective implementation in Pakistan.

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